The National Library of Belarus (NLB) was founded by the Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the Belarusian Soviet Socialistic Republic (BSSR) on September 15th, 1922. Originally it was Belarusian State University Library and, at the same time, the main library of the Republic of Belarus as part of the Belarusian State University. Iosif Simanowski became the first director of the Library. He was at the head of the Library during 40 years.
|Iosif Simanowski, the first Director of the Library (1926)|
As the State and University Library had extended its activities, its collections and the number of users had considerably grown, the Library status should have been changed. On May 14th, 1926 the BSSR Council of People’s Commissars issued a Decree according to which the Library was reorganized into the Belarusian State Library. Thereafter the Library opened its branches in other Belarusian cities: Vitebsk, Mogilev, Gomel, and in the House of Government in Minsk. These Library branches formed the system of central public libraries of the Republic of Belarus. Later the Governmental Library (today it is named as Presidential Library) and regional libraries were organized on their base.
|The first building of the National Library – the Jubilee House|
In 1932 the Library celebrated its 10th anniversary. On this occasion the Library was named after V.I. Lenin. In the same year the Library moved into the new building which became its “visiting card” for the next 70 years. The eminent Belarusian architect G. Lavrov developed an original constructivist project of the Library building. The Library included the BSSR Bibliographic Institute.
At the beginning of 1941 the Library collections totaled over 2 million items and over 15000 users. The further Library’s development was interrupted by the World War II. During the war and three years of occupation the Library was almost completely destroyed. When Minsk was liberated from Nazi invaders, only 320000 items remained in the Library collections. During the war the Library’s special facilities were totally destroyed. The Library’s building was seriously damaged.
In 1943 a working group for the book collection development was organized in the BSSR Academy of Sciences (evacuated in Moscow).The restoration of the Library collection was accomplished with the assistance of libraries of other Soviet republics. In July 1944, after the liberation of Minsk, the Government issued a Decree on the restoring of the Library work.
In 1947, the collection of the Library had been restored (in quantitative ratio) though many gaps still remain unfilled.
|The Library building. Architect G. Lavrov.|
Since spring 1945, a search for removed book collections has been started. Books from the Library’s collections were found in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. By 1948, the collection of the Library had been restored (in quantitative ratio) though many gaps still remain unfilled.
The 1950s – 1980s are remarkable by the constant growth of the Library collections, increase of the number of the Library users, development of international relations and reorganizing of the Library activities reflecting new library functions. In 1962 the Library received an additional building on the Kirova Street which allowed to temporary solve the problem with the lack of space for user work and storage of materials. In 1972, the State Library of Belarus celebrated its 50th anniversary. On this occasion the Library was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, the highest prize of the Soviet State.
After the declaration of independence of the Republic of Belarus the Library headed the Belarusian library system. On May 19th, 1992, according to the Decree of the Government the Republic of Belarus, the State Library of Belarus was renamed into the National Library of Belarus. A change of its status, an increase of significance in the cultural and social development of the state and nation was reflected in the renaming of the State Library of Belarus into the National Library of Belarus on May 19th, 1992.
By this time the Library required a new building. In 1989 took place an international contest of the best architectural project of the Library new building. The project by architects M.K. Vinogrdov and V.V. Kramarenko won the contest. The architects developed an original combination of functionality and showiness of "Belarusian Diamond". The project was fulfilled only 13 years after.
|New building of the National Library of Belarus: the Diamond|
On March 7th, 2002, the President of the Republic of Belarus signed the Decree "On the building of the state institution "National Library of Belarus". On November 1st, 2002, the foundation of the new building was laid.
Here you can find more information concerning the Library building.